The history of Pune can be traced back to the 5th century, although its roots must certainly go much further back. The Pataleshwar Cave Temple on Jangli Maharaj Road is one of the oldest architectural proofs from this period, which one can still admire today.
The area was formally populated with settlements between 758 and 768 as the fort town of Kasba situated between the rivers Mula in the northwest and the Nagzari Nala in the east. It was strategically located on the trade route between the Deccan Plateau and the Arabian Sea and flourished during the early Hindu period.
Pune was a part of the Yadava Empire of Deogiri from the 9th century until 1327. Later it was ruled by the Muslim Nizamshahi Sultans and came under the influence of the Moghul Empire. It was Chhatrapati Shivaji who finally defeated the Moghuls and founded the Hindu Maratha Kingdom. Under the Marathas, Pune was made the capital and the military headquarters of an independent state? in the 16th century, until the rulers had to cede power to the Brahmin Peshwa family. The Peshwas dominated Pune during the 18th century until the arrival of the British.

Shaniwarwada was the centre of political power, the seat of the government and the residence of the Peshwas (Prime Minister of the then Maharashtra from 1730 to 1820). Bajirao Peshwa I placed a symbolic handful of earth on 10th January 1730 at the spot where Shaniwarwada was built.
Pune was also the scene of the Third Anglo-Maratha War of 1817. In 1820 the British chose Pune as their second seat after Mumbai in order to escape the summer heat and the monsoon. Their garrison in the northwest of the city is still used by the Indian army. A row of British buildings such as the town hall and the Deccan College have been preserved. The Southern Headquarters of the Indian Army is located in Pune.
Since the time of the British colonial era, Pune has developed into an important industrial city and into a centre for higher education. Pune is well known because of the Film and Television Institute of India located there and also because of the religious and spiritual leader Osho (known earlier as Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh).

In 1961 a flood caused by the breach of the dams Panshet and Khadakwasla destroyed large parts of the old city during which 1000 to 2000 people were killed.

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